control, and governance
Fraud findings | From the Headlines
Fraud expert Art Stewart responds to real-life fraud cases — ripped from the media headlines — by sharing tips aimed at helping internal auditors navigate the massive fraud universe and deter would-be fraudsters.
February 26, 2014
PROPERTY FRAUD ALLEGED
A fraud trial got underway this month in a U.S. federal court in Boise, Idaho, against four executives of property developer DBSI, who are charged with multiple counts of mail and wire fraud, securities fraud, and bank fraud, the Idaho Statesman reports. Prosecutors allege that the company sold fractional shares of business properties and unimproved lands, beginning in 2003, that promised investors a guaranteed annual return. Prosecutors say DBSI falsely claimed it had a net worth of US $105 million in 2007 and 2008. Instead, they say the company actually was losing US $3 million a month on unprofitable properties and eventually declared bankruptcy in 2008. Although prosecutors allege that the executives depended on attracting new investors to make guaranteed payments to previous investors, the judge in the case has issued an order banning prosecutors from referring to the case as a Ponzi scheme during the trial. The executives also are charged with misusing more than US $80 million in reserve funds put up by investors.
One can understand why the defendants in this case would prefer that the term “Ponzi scheme” be avoided at trial. Very large institutions, such as we recently saw in the case of JPMorgan being fined US $2 billion for fraudulent investments, are suffering significant reputational damage as a result of hardening public attitudes toward this type of activity.
I will not comment on the judge’s decision in this case, but it presents an opportunity for internal auditors to increase their awareness of these schemes when going about their work. A Ponzi scheme, simply defined, is a fraudulent investment operation that pays returns to its investors from existing capital or new capital paid by new investors, rather than from profit earned by the individual or organization running the operation. Most sources agree that there are five key elements of a Ponzi scheme:
Typically, Ponzi schemes are detected too late — when the economy goes bad and many people need to draw on their savings. The demand for cash overwhelms the ability of the fraudsters running the scheme to find new investors to supply the needed cash.
A key difference between legitimate financial firms and Ponzi schemes is that the legitimate firms actually control assets that match the total amount on statements sent out to investors, while in Ponzi schemes, the pot of money invested is smaller than the total amount owed to investors. Therefore, one remedy could be to require periodic auditing to ensure that enough investments exist to back up the amount owed to investors. But even mandating audits is not enough — protection also is needed from fraudsters who simply shop for auditors willing to take outsized fees to look the other way. Requiring firms to have a different auditor every few years, or having an auditor assigned by an independent organization, might help. Yes, such solutions might drive up audit costs for legitimate financial institutions, but compared to the losses to people, institutions, and their reputations, they may be worth the investment.