IPPF/GAGAS Comparison

​Comparison Overview

There are many similarities between The IIA’s International Professional Practices Framework (IPPF) and GAGAS. The table below identifies the general, fieldwork, and reporting standards contained in the December 2011 revision of GAGAS for performance audits. The table also shows, for comparison, the attribute and performance standards in the October 2010 revision of The IIA’s International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing (Standards). Both organizations identify ethics as a necessary foundation for a professional audit organization and its auditors.

​GAO’s Govern​ment Auditing Standards: GAGAS (Yellow Book)

​The IIA’s International Professional Practices Framework: IPPF (Red Book)

​Government Auditing: Foundation and Ethical Principles ​Definition of Internal Auditing*
Code of Ethics*

​Standards for Use and Application of GAGAS

  • General Standards:
    • Independence
    • Professional Judgment
    • Competence
    • Quality Control and Assurance
  • Fieldwork Standards for Performance Audits:
    • Reasonable Assurance
    • Significance in a Performance Audit
    • Audit Risk
    • Planning
    • Supervision
    • Evidence
    • Audit Documentation
  • Reporting Standards for Performance Audits:
    • Reporting
    • Report Contents
    • Distributing Reports

​International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing (Standards)*

  • Attribute Standards:
    • Purpose, Authority, and Responsibility
    • Independence and Objectivity
    • Proficiency and Due Professional Care
    • Quality Assurance and Improvement Program
  • Performance Standards:
    • Managing the Internal Audit Activity
    • Nature of Work (Governance, Risk Management, and Control)
    • Engagement Planning
    • Performing the Engagement (Identifying Information, Analysis and Evaluation, Documenting Information, and Engagement Supervision)
    • Communicating Results
    • Monitoring Progress
    • Resolution of Senior Management’s Acceptance of Risks
​Practice Advisories**
​Position Papers**
Practice Guides**
(Both are part of the IPPF but not published in The IIA's Standards.)

*Mandatory Guidance
**Strongly Recommended Guidance

Key Differences Between GAGAS and the IPPF

The following are intended to highlight differences that audit organizations should consider if they elect to follow and reference both GAGAS and The IIA's Standards. Suggestions on how to address such differences can be found in the full text of the guidance. The appendix contains a full breakdown of the alignment of GAGAS to the IPPF.

A Standards/GAGAS, A ComparisonIssue 1 – “Consulting” Under The IPPF Compared to “Consulting” Under GAGAS
Issue 2 – Independence in the Performance of Audit Services
Issue 3 – Performing Nonaudit Work
Issue 4 – Reviewing the Organization’s Ethics Program
Issue 5 – Risk Assessment for Overall Audit Planning
Issue 6 – External Quality Assurance Review
Issue 7 – Quality Assurance Systems
Issue 8 – Reporting Compliance with the Standards
Issue 9 – Referencing the Standards
Issue 10 – Fraud
Issue 11 – Follow-up on Previous Audits
Issue 12 – Continuing Professional Education (CPE)

IIA Standards/GAGAS, A Comparison, 2nd Edition