Guidance and Resources

Standards for auditing establish the general specifications that define the essential attributes required for a quality audit. They include the characteristics that should be met in planning, conducting, and reporting an audit, providing a basis for ensuring audit quality.

The IIA and the Government Accountability Office (GAO) are both recognized nationally and internationally as leaders in promoting high-quality audit work.  Respectively, these organizations have promulgated the International Professional Practices Framework (IPPF) and Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards, the two most commonly used sets of standards for public sector auditing in the United States. References to these standards are available below.

The PSAC is committed to providing members with the latest, most relevant guidance and resources for auditors in the public sector and many other resources are consolidated for quick access below.

International Professional Practices Framework (IPPF)

The IPPF is the conceptual framework that organizes authoritative guidance promulgated by The IIA. A trustworthy, global, guidance-setting body, The IIA provides internal audit professionals worldwide with authoritative guidance organized in the IPPF as mandatory guidance and recommended guidance.

Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards (GAGAS)

From the GAO, GAGAS — often referred to as Yellow Book — provides a framework for conducting high-quality audits with competence, integrity, objectivity, and independence.

IPPF/GAGAS Comparison

The IIA has developed a guide that compares and contrasts these two guiding documents: IIA International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing / Government Accountability Office / Government Audit Standards (GAGAS), A Comparison, 2nd Edition). ​Called the Red/Yellow book, it identifies the  differences between the two and offers suggestions for organizations that follow both.

Other Standards That May Apply to Government Audit Organizations

There are other sets of standards set by internationally-based organizations that may apply to public sector auditors in the United States. These include the International Standards of Supreme Audit Institutions (ISSAIs) set by the International Organisation of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI) and the International Standards on Auditing (ISA) set by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) under the authority of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC).

Knowledge Library

The Knowledge Library is the result of a partnership between the Center and The IIA’s partners. There is a great wealth of useful material from industry leaders available, and the Center has gathered them in one place.

Quality Services

IIA Quality Services, LLC performs combined external assessments for conformance with U.S. Government Accountability Office’s (GAO) Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards (Yellow Book) and The Institute of Internal Auditors’ (IIA) Standards (Red Book).

Global Public Sector Insights

In an effort to support the unique needs in the public sector, The IIA’s global Public Sector Committee provides information tailored specifically to public sector auditors and their stakeholders. These Global Public Sector Insights are intended to further clarify the importance of the public sector audit activity to effective governance, and it defines the key elements needed to maximize the value that audit activity provides to all levels of the public sector.

COSO Resource Exchange

The IIA COSO Resource Exchange provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date list of resources, tools, and training to support implementation of the COSO Internal Control‒Integrated Framework. The Framework is the most widely recognized guidance on what constitutes effective internal control, which is vital for the success of any organization. It is broad-based and can be applied by organizations, businesses, public sector agencies, and not-for-profit enterprises of all sizes.



The IIA COSO Resource Exchange IIA COSO Resource Exchange IIA COSO Resource Exchange
CBOK Resource Exchange Resource Exchange Resource Exchange
The IIA Risk Resource Exchange IIA Risk Resource Exchange IIA Risk Resource Exchange

IPPF Red Book